How is the carapace.

New research finds that the carapace, which is a complex structure that consists of 50 pieces of bone that have evolved long before the dinosaurs to rule the world.
In the latest edition of the journal Current Biology, The research said it shelled turtle and it is older than the Jurassic Park. The structure of the turtles that are designed to be durable and long-lasting this represents an adjustment for several million years ago.

Tyler Lyson of Yale University and the Smithsonian museums, said armature that began to change when more than 260 million years ago in the Permian era “like other complex structures. Carapace that evolved millions of years ago and gradually developed into the shape that it is today. ”

Carapace shield is the same as one solid piece. But because it was built with pieces of bone formation, it is combined with a way to connect to the ribs and the backbone of it.

“The reason is that most animals are not created through the expansion shell and connected to the ribs is probably because of ribs, reptiles and mammals, it is intended to aid ventilation of the lungs. If we include ribs with protective shell body and what it is we need to find new ways to breathe it. ”

He explains how turtles use the above method to create a turtle shell with the help of a one-line muscle itself.

Such systems have been evolved in the lineage of turtles as they Eunotosaurus the discovery Fosse Hill condition of reptiles extinct in South Africa that made Lyson and his teammates were able to complement the range period of 55 years lost in the Fosse City of stove. Which saw the start of the carapace formed.  Prior to this discovery. The oldest ancestor of turtles was Odontochelys semitestacea the reptiles about 220 million years old, which these species have a plastron (the ventral part of the carapace) with fully evolved. But just behind the carapace only. Eunotosaurus the ninth intercostal muscles between the ribs and teeth, as well as other animals such as turtles. Ribs of the animal kind, locked it with the outer shell. The animal must be willing to lose the flexibility of movement or breathing to some extent for the safety of themselves. The reptiles go wrong underwater with a soft body that need protection from both the top and bottom.

http://news.discovery.com/animals/how-turtles-got-their-shells-130530.htm

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